Christina Hoddle


Christina Hoddle

Phone: (951) 827-4360

Christina has collaborated with the Hoddle laboratory since 2004. Christina has dedicated her research efforts towards the biological control of invasive species with an emphasis on crop pests. She has been involved in a variety of international projects sponsored by various granting agencies, private institutions, and commodity boards. An example of these finished and on-going projects include: hunting for bean thrips in Australia, identification and production of pheromone for avocado seed moth (Stenoma catenifer) in Guatemala and Peru, searching for Asian citrus psyllid parasitoids in Punjab Pakistan, monitoring Novius cardinalis populations on the Galapagos Islands and assessing the impact of this biocontrol agent on the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. Red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, and red striped palm weevil, R. vulneratus, flight activity were evaluated in Saudi Arabia and Indonesia, respectively. Extensive field work on R. vulneratus was conducted throughout southeast Asia, the home range of this pest, and genetic analyses were used to determine the probable area of origin for the source population of this pest that invaded Laguna Beach in 2010.

From December 2011 through April 2013, Christina was in charge of releasing and monitoring Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a biological control agent of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri) in urban areas of Southern California. ACP was first found in California in 2008.This parasitoid was imported from Punjab Pakistan, part of the native range of ACP. ACP is the vector of a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which cause a lethal citrus disease, huanglongbing (HLB). This project has proven to be extremely successful and ACP densities have declined by >70% in southern California since the inception of this biocontrol program and there have been no major HLB outbreaks, despite the bacterium being present in California for >12 years (CLas was first found in LA County in 2012). This outcome, is likely due in part, to ACP (i.e., vector) densities being so low because of the biological control program targeting ACP.

Currently, Christina is working on three invasive insect pests- the South American palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum), the avocado seed weevil (Helipus lauri) and the cotton seed bug (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis).

South American palm weevil (SAPW) is native to Central and South America where it causes significant mortality of native and introduced palm trees. This pest is currently expanding its range from northern Mexico (i.e., Tijuana) into Southern California (i.e., San Diego County). While it has been detected in San Diego, little has been done to control its advancement north. She has been working with the CDFA, San Diego Parks and Recreation Staff, County Agricultural Commissioners, palm management specialists and growers (ornamentals and dates) to map the spread of this pest and to develop management protocols. This is a rapidly developing and high profile program. Christina is working in both the field and lab on aspects of weevil behavior and control. Christina has also assessed the flight activity of SAPW to determine distances that this pest can fly.

Avocado seed weevil (Helipus lauri [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]), is a potentially invasive coleopteran that attacks avocado fruit in Mexico and Colombia. Weevil larvae feed on seeds destroying the fruit and it has the potential to invade avocado production areas in southern California. Live weevils were obtained from Mexico and placed in UCR’s quarantine facility to conduct developmental, reproductive, pheromone, and biology studies, flight mill assays. Ongoing work continues with the testing of the various pheromone blends identified from laboratory studies.

Cotton seed bug (CSB), (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis) (Hemiptera: Oxycarenidae) is native to Africa but has successfully invaded many places worldwide. In 2019, CSB was detected in Los Angeles County and subsequently has been found in Orange, San Diego and Riverside counties. While this pest has not yet been detected in the cotton growing regions within California, its presence threatens the cotton industry. Christina is working on the biology and behavior of CSB.



  • M.S. Entomology (2004), University of California Riverside, CA
  • B.S. Environmental Biology (2000), California State University Northridge, CA



Hoddle, C.D., Estrada-Venegas, E.G., Equihua-Martinez, A., Millar, J.G., Halloran, S. and Hoddle, M.S. (2022). What do we know about Helipus lauri, the large avocado seed weevil? CAPCA Adviser Vol. 25(3) pp. 52-56

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Morgan, D.J.W., and Milosavljević, I. (2022). Successful biological control of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in California, pp. 127–143. In: Van Driesche, R. G., R. L. Winston, T. M. Perring, and V. M. Lopez. Contributions of Classical Biological Control to the U.S. Food Security, Forestry, and Biodiversity. FHAAST-2019-05. USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Milosavljević, I., Hoddle, C.D., Morgan, D.J.W., Irvin, N.A., and Hoddle, M.S. (2022). Natural enemies have significantly suppressed Asian citrus psyllid populations in southern California. UCANR- Topics in Subtropics newsletter. Vol 22 (pp.1-5)

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C. D., Milosavljević, I., Estrada-Venegas, E. G., & Equihua-Martínez, A. (2022). Assessment of Age, Gender, Mating Status, and Size on Single and Repeat Flight Capabilities of Heilipus lauri Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Insect Science, 22(2).

Milosavljević, I., Vankosky, M. A., Morgan, D. J. W., Hoddle, C. D., Massie, R. E., & Hoddle, M. S. (2022). Post-Release Evaluation of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for

Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Urban California, USA. Agronomy, 12(3), 583. Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C. D., & Milosavljević, I. (2021). Quantification of the Life Time Flight Capabilities of the South American Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Insects, 12(2), 126.

Milosavljević,I., Hoddle C.D., and Hoddle, M.S. (2020) Trapping protocols for South American palm weevil in California. CAPCA Adviser. October 2020, p. 48-53

Milosavljević I., Hoddle C.D., Mafra-Neto A., Gomez-Marco F., Hoddle M.S.  (2020) Use of digital video cameras to determine the efficacy of two trap types for capturing Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. Sept 2020, p.1-4.

Hoddle M.S. and Hoddle C.D. (2020) Biocontrol of ACP in California What Was Accomplished? Citrograph.Vol 11 (2) p. 34-38

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C. D., Milosavljević, I. (2020) How Far Can Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly? Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol 113 (4), p 1786–1795

Milosavljević, I., Hoddle, C. D., Mafra-Neto, A., Gómez-Marco, F., & Hoddle, M. S. (2020). Effects of Food Bait and Trap Type on Captures of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Trap Bycatch in Southern California. Journal of Economic Entomology. Aug 2020, p. 1–11

Milosavljević I., H.A.F. EL-Shafie, J.R. Faleiro, C.D. Hoddle, M. Lewis, and M.S. Hoddle (2018) Palmageddon: the wasting of ornamental palms by invasive palm weevils, Rhynchophorus spp. J. Pest Sci.

Kistner, E., Lewis, M., Carpenter, E., Melhem, N., Hoddle, C., Strode, V., Oliva, J., Castillo, M., Hoddle, M. (2017) Digital video surveillance of natural enemy activity on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) colonies infesting citrus in the southern California urban landscape. Biological Control Vol 115: p141-151

 Milosavljević, I., Schall, K. Hoddle, C., Morgan, D., Hoddle, M. (2017) Biocontrol program targets Asian citrus psyllid in California's urban areas. California Agriculture 71(3):169-177.

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. (2017) Palmageddon: The Invasion of California by the South American Palm Weevil is Underway. CAPCA Adviser April 2017, p. 40-44

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Alzubaidy, M., Kabashima, J., Nisson, J., Dimson, M. (2017) The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach. California Agriculture. Vol 71(1): p23-29

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. (2016) How far can the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), fly? Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 109: p.629-636.

Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., (2016) Evaluation of three trapping strategies for the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Sumatra Indonesia. Pakistan Entomologist. p.73-77.

Hoddle, M.S., Amrich, R., Hoddle, C.D., Kistner, E. (2016) Where's Tamarixia? Citrograph. Citrus Research Board. p.64-66

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Faleiro, J.R., El-Shafie, H.F., Jeske, D., Sallam, A.A. (2015) How far can the red palm weevil fly?: Computerized flight mill studies with field-captured weevils. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 108: p.2599-2609.

Hoddle, M.S., Bistline-East, A., Hoddle, C.D., Lewis, M. (2015) Enlisting a Second Natural Enemy Species for ACP Biocontrol. Citrograph. Citrus Research Board. p.58-63

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Triapitsyn, S.V., Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J. (2014) How Many Primary Parasitoid Species Attack Nymphs of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphornia citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Punjab Pakistan? Florida Entomologist. Vol. 97: p.1825-1828.

Vetter, R.S., Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Spiders (Araneae) surveyed from unsprayed citrus orchards in Faisalabad, Pakistan and their potential as biological control agents of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Pakistan Entomologist. Vol. 35: p.61-69. 

Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Stouthamer, R. (2013) The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both. PLoS One. Vol. 8(10) e78739: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078379 15p.

Hoddle, M.S., Ramirez, C.C., Hoddle, C.D., Loayza, J., Lincango, M.P., van Driesche, R., Causton, C. (2013) Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Biological Control. 67 p.262-274.

Hoddle, M.S., Al-Abbad, A.H., El-Shafie, H.F., Faleiro, J.R., Sallam, A.A., Hoddle, C.D. (2013) Assessing the impact of areawide pheromone trapping, pesticide applications and eradication of infested date palms for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in Al Ghowaybah, Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection. 53 p.152-160.

Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S.V. (2013) Marietta leopardina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Aprostocetus (Aprostocetus) sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are obligate hyperparasitoids of Tamarixia radiata (Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.643-646

Triapitsyn, S.V., Hoddle, C.D., Hayat, M., Hoddle, M.S. (2013) Taxonomic notes on Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its host associations in Pakistan. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.212-218.

Calderon Alverez, C., Causton, C., Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., van Driesche, R., Stanek III, E.J. (2012) Monitoring the effects of Rodolia cardinalis on Icerya purchasi populations on the Galapagos Islands. BioControl. Vol. 57: p.167-179.

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. (2012) Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Associated Parasitoids Infesting Avocados in Perú. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 105: 2 p.402-409.

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C.D. (2011) Evaluation of three trapping strategies for Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in the Philippines. Pak. Entomol., 33(2): 77-80.

Hoddle, M.S., Millar J.G., Hoddle C.D., Zou Y., McElfresh J.S., and Lesch S.M. (2011). Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection. Bulletin of Entomological Research 101: 145-152.

Hoddle, M.S., Millar, J.G., Hoddle, C.D., Zou, Y., and McElfresh, J.S. (2009). Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Environmental Entomology 102: 1460-1467.

O'Brochta, D.A., Stosic, C.D., Pilitt, K., Subramanian R.A., Hice, R.H, Atkinson, P.W. (2009). Transpositionally active episomal hAT elements. BMC Molecular Biology 2009, 10:108

Hoddle, M.S., Mottern, J.L., and Hoddle, C.D. (2009). Observations on Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infesting Hass Avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 92(4):673-674.

Hoddle, M. S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Aspects of the field ecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) infesting Hass avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 91: 693-694.

Hoddle, M. S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 692-698.

Millar, J. G., Hoddle, M. S., McElfresh, J. S., Zou, Y. and Hoddle, C. (2008). (9Z)-9,13-Tetradecadien-11-ynal,the sex pheromone of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer. Tetrahedron Letters 49: 4820-4823.

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C.D. and Mound, L. A. (2008). Inventory of Thysanoptera collected from French Polynesia. Pacific Science 62: 509-515.

Hoddle, M.S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1310-1316

Hoddle, M.S., Stosic, C.D., and Mound L.A. (2006). Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 122-129.

Holtzman, D.A., Stosic, C.D., and Wyatt, J. (2002). Field use of a local anesthetic, Lidocaine Hydrochloride, for radio-transmitter implantation in Boa constrictor imperator. Herpetological Review 33: 189-192





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