Christina Hoddle


Christina Hoddle


Associate Specialist
Phone: (951) 827-4360
Fax: (951) 827-3086

Christina has collaborated with the Hoddle laboratory since 2004. Christina has dedicated her research efforts towards biological control and invasive species with an emphasis on crop pests. She has been involved in a variety of international projects sponsored by various granting agencies, private institutions, and commodity boards. An example of these finished and on-going projects include: hunting for bean thrips in Australia (Funded: Citrus Research Board-CRB), identification and production of pheromone for avocado seed moth (Stenoma catenifer) in Guatemala and Peru (Funded: CA Avocado Commission), searching for Asian citrus psyllid parasitoids in Pakistan (Funded: CDFA/CRB), monitoring Rodolia cardinalis populations on the Galapagos Islands and assessing the impact of this biocontrol agent on the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi (Funded: Various Donors), red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and R. vulneratus) flight activity in Saudi Arabia (Funded: King Faisal University) and genetic analyses throughout southeast Asia (Funded: CDFA).

From December 2011 through April 2013, Christina was in charge of releasing and monitoring Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a biological control agent of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in urban areas of Southern California. This project has proven to be extremely successful, and parasites have been detected 5-7 miles beyond their release points. CDFA and the Citrus Research Board have subsequently taken over the mass production and releases of this parasitoid. Since then, Christina has focused her efforts on a second parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).This solitary endoparasitoid prefers to attack 2nd-3rd instars of ACP, whereas Tamarixia radiata prefers the 4th-5th instars. The goal is to utilize both parasitoids as a control strategy to create a complementary effect where they attack nearly all of the nymphal stages of ACP. Christina is currently in charge of rearing Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis and as of December 2014 started the release and monitoring program in urban areas of Southern California.

Currently, Christina is working with the South American Palm Weevil (SAPW). This weevil is native to Central and South America where it causes significant mortality of native and introduced palm trees. This pest is currently expanding its range from northern Mexico (i.e., Tijuana) into Southern California (i.e., San Diego County). While it has been detected in San Diego, little has been done to control its advancement north. She has been working with the CDFA, San Diego Parks and Recreation Staff, County Agricultural Commissioners, palm management specialists and growers (ornamentals and dates) to map the spread of this pest and to develop management protocols. This is a rapidly developing and high profile program. She is working in both the field and lab settings to map the spread of this pest as well as understand its maximum flight capabilities to determine potential quarantine restrictions needed to contain this problem.



  • M.S. Entomology (2004), University of California Riverside, CA
  • B.S. Environmental Biology (2000), California State University Northridge, CA



Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Alzubaidy, M., Kabashima, J., Nisson, J., Dimson, M. (2017) The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach. California Agriculture. Vol 71(1): p23-29

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. (2016) How far can the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), fly? Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 109: p.629-636.

Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., (2016) Evaluation of three trapping strategies for the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Sumatra Indonesia. Pakistan Entomologist. p.73-77.

Hoddle, M.S., Amrich, R., Hoddle, C.D., Kistner, E. (2016) Where's Tamarixia? Citrograph. Citrus Research Board. p.64-66

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Faleiro, J.R., El-Shafie, H.F., Jeske, D., Sallam, A.A. (2015) How far can the red palm weevil fly?: Computerized flight mill studies with field-captured weevils. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 108: p.2599-2609.

Hoddle, M.S., Bistline-East, A., Hoddle, C.D., Lewis, M. (2015) Enlisting a Second Natural Enemy Species for ACP Biocontrol. Citrograph. Citrus Research Board. p.58-63

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Triapitsyn, S.V., Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J. (2014) How Many Primary Parasitoid Species Attack Nymphs of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphornia citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Punjab Pakistan? Florida Entomologist. Vol. 97: p.1825-1828.

Vetter, R.S., Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Spiders (Araneae) surveyed from unsprayed citrus orchards in Faisalabad, Pakistan and their potential as biological control agents of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Pakistan Entomologist. Vol. 35: p.61-69. 

Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Stouthamer, R. (2013) The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both. PLoS One. Vol. 8(10) e78739: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078379 15p.

Hoddle, M.S., Ramirez, C.C., Hoddle, C.D., Loayza, J., Lincango, M.P., van Driesche, R., Causton, C. (2013) Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Biological Control. 67 p.262-274.

Hoddle, M.S., Al-Abbad, A.H., El-Shafie, H.F., Faleiro, J.R., Sallam, A.A., Hoddle, C.D. (2013) Assessing the impact of areawide pheromone trapping, pesticide applications and eradication of infested date palms for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in Al Ghowaybah, Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection. 53 p.152-160.

Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S.V. (2013) Marietta leopardina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Aprostocetus (Aprostocetus) sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are obligate hyperparasitoids of Tamarixia radiata (Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.643-646

Triapitsyn, S.V., Hoddle, C.D., Hayat, M., Hoddle, M.S. (2013) Taxonomic notes on Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its host associations in Pakistan. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.212-218.

Calderon Alverez, C., Causton, C., Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., van Driesche, R., Stanek III, E.J. (2012) Monitoring the effects of Rodolia cardinalis on Icerya purchasi populations on the Galapagos Islands. BioControl. Vol. 57: p.167-179.

Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. (2012) Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Associated Parasitoids Infesting Avocados in Perú. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 105: 2 p.402-409.

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C.D. (2011) Evaluation of three trapping strategies for Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in the Philippines. Pak. Entomol., 33(2): 77-80.

Hoddle, M.S., Millar J.G., Hoddle C.D., Zou Y., McElfresh J.S., and Lesch S.M. (2011). Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection. Bulletin of Entomological Research 101: 145-152.

Hoddle, M.S., Millar, J.G., Hoddle, C.D., Zou, Y., and McElfresh, J.S. (2009). Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Environmental Entomology 102: 1460-1467.

O'Brochta, D.A., Stosic, C.D., Pilitt, K., Subramanian R.A., Hice, R.H, Atkinson, P.W. (2009). Transpositionally active episomal hAT elements. BMC Molecular Biology 2009, 10:108

Hoddle, M.S., Mottern, J.L., and Hoddle, C.D. (2009). Observations on Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infesting Hass Avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 92(4):673-674.

Hoddle, M. S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Aspects of the field ecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) infesting Hass avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 91: 693-694.

Hoddle, M. S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 692-698.

Millar, J. G., Hoddle, M. S., McElfresh, J. S., Zou, Y. and Hoddle, C. (2008). (9Z)-9,13-Tetradecadien-11-ynal,the sex pheromone of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer. Tetrahedron Letters 49: 4820-4823.

Hoddle, M. S., Hoddle, C.D. and Mound, L. A. (2008). Inventory of Thysanoptera collected from French Polynesia. Pacific Science 62: 509-515.

Hoddle, M.S. and Hoddle, C.D. (2008). Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1310-1316

Hoddle, M.S., Stosic, C.D., and Mound L.A. (2006). Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 122-129.

Holtzman, D.A., Stosic, C.D., and Wyatt, J. (2002). Field use of a local anesthetic, Lidocaine Hydrochloride, for radio-transmitter implantation in Boa constrictor imperator. Herpetological Review 33: 189-192





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