University of California, Riverside

Applied Biological Control Research



Mark Hoddle


Mark HoddleMark S. Hoddle, Ph.D.
Biological Control Specialist and Principal Investigator
Phone: (951) 827-4714
Fax: (951) 827-3086
mark.hoddle@ucr.edu

Dr. Hoddle has headed the research in this laboratory since 1997 and is primarily involved in the identification of pest problems where biological control could be a successful approach. The location, release and evaluation of natural enemy impacts on population growth features strongly in his research. The evaluation of biological control agents are conducted primarily in the field and, when necessary, aspects of both pest and natural enemy biology and behavior are studied in the laboratory.  He is also the director of the Center for Invasive Species Research.

Degrees
Ph.D. Entomology (1996), University of Massachusetts

M.S. Zoology (1991), University of Auckland, New Zealand

B.S. Zoology (1988), University of Auckland, New Zealand

Awards

  • Entomological Society of America (Pacific Branch) Award for Excellence in Extension, 2013
  • Entomological Society of America (Pacific Branch) Plant-Ecosystems Award, 2012
  • Entomological Society of America (National) Recognition Award in Entomology, 2007
  • Entomological Society of America (Pacific Branch) Recognition Award in Entomology, 2007
  • California Junior Chamber of Commerce Young Farmer of the Year, 2000
  • Rosenfeld Award for Applied Pest Management, 1996
  • Entomological Society of America President's Prize for Biological Control, 1995
  • Entomological Society of America President's Prize for Biological Control, 1994
  • University of Massachusetts Graduate Fellowship, 1993

UCR Leadership

Living the Promise                Center for Invasive Species Research

 

 

 

 

Current Projects


Avocado ThripsAvocado Thrips

Avocado thrips belong to the insect order Thysanoptera which means "fringe wings". More...

 

Avocado Lace BugAvocado Lace Bug

Here is a pdf article which originaly apeared in AvoResearch in 2005. Link... 

 

stenomaAvocado Seed Moth

The avocado seed moth has caused major economic damage to the avocado industry in California. More...

 

cryptaspasmaCryptaspasma sp.

Cryptaspasma sp. is found from avocado seeds collected in Puerto Rico, Mexico and Guatemala. More...

 

Avocado Fruit Galling MidgeAvocado Fruit Galling Midge

The avocado fruit galling midge causes damage to pods by feeding in immature fruiting bodies. More...

 

Avocado Fruit Galling PsyllidAvocado Leaf Galling Psyllid

Trioza induce galls that develop on the upper or lower leaf surface or cause leaf margins to roll. More...

 

Bean ThripsBean Thrips Surveys

Results from bean thrips surveys. PDF...

 

Icerya purchasi with Rodolia cardinalisCottony Cushion Scale

Icerya purchasi Maskell, or Cottony Cushion Scale is an exotic plant pest in the Galapagos Islands. More...

 

Glassy-Winged SharpshooterGlassy-Winged Sharpshooter

The glassy-winged sharpshooter feeds exclusively on xylem fluids on citrus. More...

 

levuana iridescensLevunana iridescens

Levunana iridescens was last collected in Fiju in 1929. More...

 

Persea MitePersea Mite

The persea mite was first described in 1975 from specimens collected from avocado foliage. More...

 

Red Banded WhiteflyRed Banded Whitefly

Whiteflies are small sucking insects that live on the underside of leaves. More...

 

Silverleaf WhitelfySilverleaf Whitefly

Whiteflies are small sucking insects that live on the underside of leaves. More...

 

Western Flower ThripsWestern Flower Thrips

Western flower thrips lays its eggs in plant tissue, using a blade-like ovipositor to insert eggs. More...

 

Research Interests

Biological control is the intentional use of host specific natural enemies (predators, parasitoids, and pathogens) by humans to suppress population growth of noxious plants and animals to levels which are no longer damaging. Many of our current agricultural pest problems are amenable to biological control, and when successful, natural enemies provide enduring, environmentally benign, pest control. Biological control is also being used in conservation efforts to restore natural areas invaded by exotic organisms, especially weeds. The emphasis of my work is to identify pest problems where biological control could be successful, locate and release natural enemies, and then evaluate natural enemy impact on pest population growth. Evaluations of biological control agents are conducted primarily in the field, and when necessary, aspects of both pest and natural enemy biology and behavior are studied in the laboratory. I am particularly interested in determining; 1) the magnitude of reduction in pest population growth caused by natural enemies, 2) the mechanisms by which pests and natural enemies co-exist at low densities, 3) the number of natural enemy species that are needed to give control, 4) inter-specific competition between natural enemies which utilize the same host, and 5) the economics of biological control when compared to pesticides.


Harry Scott SmithThe Harry Scott Smith Scholarship for Graduate Biological Control Students

 For some time Dr. Hoddle has been facilitating the Harry Scott Smith Scholarship Fund to support graduate students in biological control in Riverside, CA. If biological control is to continue to prosper in southern California, the continuing recruitment and training of high quality students is paramount. If you would like to find out more about this scholarship fund or learn how you can support the Harry Scott Smith Scholarship Fund, click here.

Outreach

Mark Hoddle explains invasive species and the economic and environmental problems they cause in this lecture. Titled “What’s in Your Garden? Protecting California From Invasive Species,” the hour-long lecture, is followed by a question-and-answer session about popular invasive species invading California. 

Publications

142. Hoddle, M.S. and R. Pandey. 2014. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for the classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California. Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 125-136.

141. Vetter, R.S., S.Z. Khan, M.J. Arif, C.D. Hoddle, and M.S. Hoddle. 2013. Spiders (Araneae) surveyed from unsprayed citrus orchards in Faisalabad, Pakistan and their potential as biological control agents of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Pakistan Entomologist 35: 61-69.

140. Tena, A., C.D. Hoddle, and M.S. Hoddle. 2013. Competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemitperan interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest. Bulletin of Entomological Research 103: 714-723.

139. Rugman-Jones, P.F., C.D. Hoddle, M.S. Hoddle and R. Stouthamer. 2013. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both. PLoS One 8(10): e78739.

138. Hoddle, M.S. C.C. Ramirez, C.D. Hoddle, J. Loayza, M.P. Lincango, R.G. Van Driesche, and C.E. Causton. 2013. Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Biological Control 67: 262-274.

137. Hoddle, M.S. A.H. Al-Abbad, H.A.F. El-Shafie, J.R. Faleiro, A.A. Sallam, and C.D. Hoddle. 2013. Assessing the impact of areawide pheromone trapping, pesticide applications and eradication of infested date palms for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in Al Ghowaybah, Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection 53: 152-160.

136. Lopez, V. and M.S. Hoddle. 2013. Mortality factors affecting Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) eggs in the native and invaded ranges. Biological Control 67: 143-148.

135. Hoddle, C.D., M.S. Hoddle, S.V. Triapitsyn. 2013. Marietta leopardina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Aprostocetus (Aprostocetus) sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are obligate hyperparasitoids of Tamarixia radiata (Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist 96: 643-646.

134. Triapitsyn, S.V., Hoddle, C.D., Hyatt, M. and Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Taxonomic notes on Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its host associations in Pakistan. Florida Entomologist 96: 212-218.

133. Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, M.S., Amrich, R., Heraty, J.M., Stouthamer-Ingel, C.E., and Stouthamer, R. 2012. Phylogeographic structure, outbreeding depression, and reluctant virgin oviposition in the bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in California. Bulletin of Entomological Research 102: 698-709

132. Taylor, P.B., J.J. Duan, R.W Fuester, M.S. Hoddle, and R.G. Van Driesche. 2012. Parasitoid guilds of Agrilus woodborers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): their diversity and potential for use in biological control. Psyche Article ID 813929

131. Rathe, A.A., L.J. Pilkington, G.M. Gurr, M.S. Hoddle, M.P. Daugherty, F.E. Constable, J.E. Luck, K.S. Powell, M.J. Fletcher, and O.R. Edwards. 2011. Incursion preparedness: anticipating the arrival of an economically important plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Wells (Proteobacteria: Xanthomonadaceae) and the insect vector Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 51: 209-220

130. Zhang, Z., D.R. Jeske, X. Cui, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. Co-clustering spatial data using a generalized linear mixed model with application to integrated pest management. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 17: 265-282.

129. Hoddle, M.S. and C.D Hoddle. 2012. Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated parasitoids infesting avocados in Perú. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 402-409.

128. Hoddle, M.S. and C.D. Hoddle. 2012. Evaluation of three trapping strategies for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Philippines. Pakistan Entomologist 33: 77-80.

127. Calderón-Alvarez, C., C.E. Causton, M.S. Hoddle, C.D. Hoddle, R.G. Van Driesche, and E.J. Stanek III. 2012. Monitoring the effects of Rodolia cardinalis on Icerya purchasi on the Galapagos Islands. BioControl 57: 167-179.

126. Coleman, T.W., A.D. Graves, M.S. Hoddle, Z. Heath, Y. Chen, M.L. Flint, and S.J. Seybold. 2012. Forest stand composition and impacts associated with Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse in oak woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management 276: 104-117.

125. Coleman, T., V. Lopez, P. Rugman-Jones, R. Stouthamer, S.J. Seybold, R. Reardon, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. Can the destruction of California’s oak woodlands be prevented? Potential for biological control of the gold spotted oakborer, Agrilus auroguttatus. BioControl 57: 211-225.

124. DePalma, E. D.R. Jeske, J.R. Lara, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. Sequential Hypothesis Testing With Spatially Correlated Presence-Absence Data. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 1077-1087.

123. Hoddle, M.S. and C.D. Hoddle. 2012. Evaluation of three trapping strategies for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Philippines. Pakistan Entomologist 33: 77-80.

122. Hoddle, M.S. and C.D Hoddle. 2012. Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated parasitoids infesting avocados in Perú. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 402-409.

121. Irvin, N.A., J.R. Hagler, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. Laboratory investigation of triple marking the parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi with a fluorescent dye and two animal proteins. Entomologia Experimentalis et. Applicata 143: 1-12.

120. Percy, D., A. Rung, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. An annotated checklist of the psyllids of California (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Zootaxa: 3193: 1-27.

119. Rugman-Jones, P.F., M.S. Hoddle, P.A. Phillips, G. Jeong, and R. Stouthamer. 2012. Strong genetic structure among populations of the invasive avocado pest Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) reveals the source of introduced populations. Biological Invasions 14: 1079-1100.

118. Zhang, Z., D.R. Jeske, X. Cui, and M.S. Hoddle. 2012. Co-clustering spatial data using a generalized linear mixed model with application to integrated pest management. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 17: 265-282.

117. Ballman, E.S., P.F. Rugman-Jones, R. Stouthamer, and M.S. Hoddle. 2011. Genetic structure of Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) populations across its natural range in California reveals isolation by distance. Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 279-287.

116. Funderburk, J. and M.S. Hoddle. 2011. Laurence Alfred Mound and his contributions to our knowledge of the Thysanoptera. Zootaxa 2896: 9-36.

115. Gilligan, T.M., J.W. Brown, and M.S.Hoddle. 2011. A new avocado pest in Central America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a key to Lepidoptera larvae threatening avocados in California. Zootaxa 3137: 31-45.

114. Gutierrez, A.P., L. Ponti, M. S. Hoddle, R.P.P. Almeida, and N.A. Irvin. 2011. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the invasive glassy-winged sharpshooter: effects of temperature and egg parasitoids. Environmental Entomology 40: 755-769.

113. Hoddle, M.S., J.G. Millar, C.D. Hoddle, Y. Zou, J.S. McElfresh, and S.M. Lesch. 2011. Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection. Bulletin of Entomological Research 101: 145-152.

112. Hoddle, M.S. and L. A. Mound. 2011. Thysanoptera of the Galapagos Islands. Pacific Science 65: 507-513.

111. Irvin, N.A., and M.S. Hoddle. 2011. Comparative assessments of Gonatocerus ashmeadi and the new association parasitoid G. deleoni(Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) as biological control agents of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 839-863.

110. Li, J.X. D.R. Jeske, J.R. Lara, and M. Hoddle. 2011. Sequential hypothesis testing with spatially correlated count data. Integration: Mathematical Theory and Applications 2: 269-284.

109. Brown, J.G. and M.S. Hoddle. 2010. A new species of Histura Razowski (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) from Guatemala attacking avocados (Persea americana) (Lauraceae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 112: 10-21.

108. Byrne, F.J., E.C. Humeres, A.A. Urena, M.S.Hoddle, and J.G. Morse. 2010. Field evaluation of systemic imidacloprid for the management of avocado thrips and avocado lace bug in California avocado groves. Pesticide Management Science 66: 1129-1136.

107. Hoddle, M.S. and J.G. Brown. 2010. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 93: 649-650.

106. Irvin, N.A. and M.S. Hoddle. 2010. Comparative assessments of Gonatocerus ashmeadi and the ‘new association’ parasitoid Gonatocerus tuberculifemur (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) as biological control agents of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biological Control 55: 186-196.

105. Rugman-Jones, P.F., M.S. Hoddle, and R. Stouthamer. 2010. Nuclear-mitochondrial bar coding exposes the global pest western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as two sympatric cryptic species in its native California. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 877-886.

104. Van Driesche, R.G., R.I. Carruthers, T. Center, M.S. Hoddle, J. Hough-Goldstein, L. Morin, L. Smith, et al. 2010. Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems. Biological Control 54: S2-S33.

103. Adamski, D., and M. S. Hoddle. 2009. A new Holcocera Clemens from Guatemala and redescription of H. iceryaeella (Riley) from the United States (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae: Blastobasinae: Holcocerini): Two congeners with incidental preference for avocado. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111: 254-262.

102. Hoddle, M.S., J.G. Millar, C. D. Hoddle, Y. Zou, and S. McElfresh. 2009. Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 1460-1467.

101. Hoddle, M.S., J.L. Mottern, and C.D. Hoddle. 2009. Observations on Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting Hass avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 92: 673-674.

100. Humeres, E.C., J.G.Morse, R. Stouthamer, W. Roltsch, and M.S. Hoddle. 2009. Evaluation of natural enemies and insecticides for control of Pseudacysta perseae (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on avocados in southern California. Florida Entomologist 92: 35-42.

99. Humeres, E.C., J.G. Morse, W. Roltsch, and M.S.Hoddle. 2009. Detection surveys and population monitoring for Pseudacysta perseae on avocados in southern California. Florida Entomologist 92: 382-385.

98. Irvin, N., J. Suarez-Espinoza, and M. S. Hoddle. 2009. Functional response of Gonatocerus ashmeadi and the “new association” parasitoid, G. tuberculifemur attacking eggs of Homalodisca vitripennis. Environmental Entomology 38: 1634-1641.

97. Petit, J. N., M. S. Hoddle, J. Grandgirard, G. K. Roderick, and N. Davies. 2009. Successful spread of a biocontrol agent reveals a biosecurity failure: elucidating long distance invasion pathways for Gonatocerus ashmeadi in French Polynesia. BioControl 54: 485-495.

96. Boyd, E. A., S. V. Triapitsyn, M. S. Hoddle. 2008. Taxonomic notes on Polynema eutettexi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and a similar species reared as an egg parasitoid of Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in California. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 84: 194-199.

95. Grandgirard, J., M. S. Hoddle, J. N. Petit, G. K. Roderick, and N. Davies. 2008.Classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, by the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi in the Society, Marquesas, and Austral Archipelagos of French Polynesia. Biological Control 48: 155-163.

94. Grandgirard, J., Hoddle, M. S., Petit, J. A., Roderick, G. K., and Davies, N. 2008. Engineering an invasion: classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, by the egg parasitoidGonatocerus ashmeadi in Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. Biological Invasions 10: 135-148

93. Hoddle, M.S. 2008. First record of Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting Hass avocados. Florida Entomologist 91: 501-503.

92. Hoddle, M.S., Heraty, J.M., Rugman-Jones, P.F., Mound, L.A., and Stouthamer, R. 2008. Relationships among species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using molecular and morhphological data. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 491-500.

91. Hoddle, M. S. and C. D. Hoddle. 2008. Aspects of the field ecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) infesting Hass avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 91: 693-694.

90. Hoddle, M. S. and C. D. Hoddle. 2008. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 692-698.

89. Hoddle, M.S. and C. D. Hoddle. 2008. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1310-1316.

88. Hoddle, M. S., C. D. Hoddle, and L. A. Mound. 2008. Inventory of Thysanoptera collected from French Polynesia. Pacific Science 62: 509-515.

87. Hoddle, M. S., Mound, L.A., Rugman-Jones, P.F., and Stouthamer, R. (2008).Synonomy of five Scirothrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) described from avocados (Persea americana) in Mexico. Florida Entomologist 91: 16-21.

86. Irvin, N. A. and M. S. Hoddle. 2008. Egg maturation, oosorption, and wing wear in Gonatocerus ashmeadi  (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis  (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biological Control 48: 125-132.

85. Millar, J.  G., M. S. Hoddle, J. S. McElfresh, Y. Zou, and C. Hoddle. 2008. (9Z)-9,13-Tetradecadien-11-ynal,the sex pheromone of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer. Tetrahedron Letters 49: 4820-4823.

84. Percy, D. A.,  Boyd, E. A. and Hoddle, M. S. 2008. Observations of acoustic signalling in three sharshooters: Homalodisca vitripennis, Homalodisca liturata,  and Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 253-259.

83. Petit, J. N., Hoddle, M. S., Grandgirard, J., Roderick, G. K., and Davies, N. 2008.  Invasion dynamics of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in French Poylnesia. Biological Invasions 10: 955-967.

82. Petit, J. N., M. S. Hoddle, J. Grandgirard, G. K. Roderick, and N. Davies. 2008. Short-distance dispersal behavior and establishment of the parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Tahiti: Implications for its use as a biological control agent against Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biological Control 45: 344-352.

81. Boyd, E. A. and Hoddle, M.S. 2007. Host specificity testing of Gonatocerus spp. egg-parasitoids used in a classical biological control program against Homalodisca vitripennis: a retrospective analysis for non-target impacts in southern California. Biological Control 43: 56-70.

80. Boyd, E. A., Nay, J. E., and Hoddle, M. S. 2007. A new plastic soda bottle cage useful for standardizing biological studies of arthropods on plants. Southwestern Entomologist 32: 177-180.

79. Grandgirard, J., Hoddle, M.S., Petit, J.N., Percy, D.N., Roderick, G.K., and Davies, N. 2007. Pre-introductory risk assessment studies of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) for use as a classical biological control agent against Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Society Islands of French Polynesia. Biocontrol Science and Technology 17: 809-822.

78. Grandgirard, J., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S.V., Petit, J.N., Roderick, G.K., and Davies, N. 2007. First records of Gonatocerus dolichocerus Ashmead, Palaeoneura sp., Anagrus sp., (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), and Centrodora sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in French Polynesia with notes on egg parasitism of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Pan Pacific Entomologist 83: 177-184.

77. Irvin, N.A., Hoddle, M.S., and Castle, S.J. 2007. The effect of resource provisioning and sugar composition of foods on longevity of three Gonatocerus spp., egg parasitoids of Homalodisca vitripennis. Biological Control 40: 69-79.

76. Irvin, N.A. and Hoddle, M.S. 2007. Evaluation of floral resources for enhancement of fitness of Gonatocerus ashmeadi, an egg parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis. Biological Control 40: 80-88.

75. Pilkington, L. J. and Hoddle, M.S. 2007. Predictions of invasion success of Gonatocerus triguttatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California using life table statistics and degree-day values. Biological Control 42: 9-15.

74. Pilkington, L.J. and Hoddle, M.S. 2007. Use of life tables to quantify reproductive and developmental biology of Gonatocerus triguttatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biological Control 42: 1-8.

73. Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, M.S. and Stouthamer, R. 2007. Population genetics of Scirtothrips perseae: tracing the origin of a recently introduced exotic pest of Californian avocado orchards, using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. Entomologica Experimentalis et Applicata 124: 101-115.

72. Triapitsyn, S. V., Berezovskiy, V. V., Hoddle, M. S. and Morse, J. G.  2007. A review of the Nearctic species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) , with a key and new additions to the world fauna. Zootaxa 1641: 1-64.

71. Van Driesche, R. G., Hoddle, M. S., Center, T. 2007.  Control de Plagas y Malezas por Enemigos Naturales. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET-2007-02, Morgantown West Virginia, USA.  751pp.

70. Boyd, E.A. and Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Oviposition and flight activity of the blue-green sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on Southern California wild grape and first report of associated egg parasitoids. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 1154-1164.

69. Grandgirard, J., Hoddle, M.S., Roderick, G.K., Petit, J., Percy, D., Putoa, R., Garnier, C., and Davies, N. 2006. Invasion of French Polynesia by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodsica coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a threat to the South Pacific. Pacfic Science 60: 429-438.

68. Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Challenges to IPM advancement: pesticides, biocontrol, genetic engineering, and invasive species. New Zealand Entomologist 29: 77-88.

67. Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Historical review of control programs for Levuana iridescens (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) in Fiji and examination of possible extinction of this moth by Bessa remota (Diptera: Tachinidae). Pacific Science 60: 439-453.

66. Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Phenology, Life tables, and reproductive biology of Tetraleurodes perseae (Hemiptere: Aleyrodidae) on California avocados. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 553-559.

65. Hoddle, M.S., Stosic, C.D., and Mound L.A. 2006. Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 122-129.

64. Irvin, N.A., and Hoddle, M.S. 2006. The effect of intraspecific competition on progeny sex ratio in Gonatocerus spp. for Homalodisca coagulata egg masses: economic implications for mass rearing and biological control. Biological Control 39: 162-170.

63. Irvin, N.A., Hoddle, M.S., and Morgan D.J.W. 2006.  Competition between Gonatocerus ashmeadi and G. triguttatus for glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata) egg masses. Biocontrol Science and Technology 16: 359-375.

62. Morse, J.G. and Hoddle, M.S. 2006.  Invasion biology of thrips.  Annual Review of Entomology 51: 67-89.

61. Pilkington, L.J., and Hoddle, M.S. 2006.  Reproductive and developmental biology of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), and egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Biological Control 37: 266-275.

60. Pilkington, L.J., and Hoddle., M.S. 2006. Use of life table statistics and degree-day values to predict the invasion success of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), and egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Biological Control 37: 276-283. 

59. Rugman Jones, P.F., Hoddle, M.S., Mound, L.A., and Stouthamer, R. 2006. Molecular identification key for pest species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 1813-1819.

58. Suttle, K.B. and Hoddle, M.S. 2006. Engineering enemy free space: an invasive pest that kills its predators. Biological Invasions 8: 639-283.

57. Irvin, N.A. and Hoddle, M. S. 2005. The competitive ability of three mymarid egg parasitoids (Gonatocerus spp.) for glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisica coagulata) eggs. Biological Control 34: 204-214.

56. Irvin, N.A. and Hoddle, M.S. 2005.  Determination of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg ages suitable for oviposition by Gonatocerus ashmeadiGonatocerus triguttatus, and Gonatocerus fasciatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).  Biological Control 32: 391-400.

55. Pilkington L. J., Irvin, N. A., Boyd, E. A., Hoddle, M. S., Triapitsyn, S. V., Carey, B. G., Jones, W. A., Morgan, D. J. W. 2005.  Introduced parasitic wasps could control glassy-winged sharpshooter.  California Agriculture.  59 (4): 223-228

54. Rugman-Jones, P.F., Weeks, A.R., Hoddle, M.S. and Stouthammer, R. 2005.  Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 644-646.

53. Velema, H-P., Hemerik, L., Hoddle, M. S. and Luck, R. F. 2005.  Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).  Ecological Entomology 30: 485-496.

52. Hoddle, M.S. 2004. The potential adventive geographic range of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata and the grape pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: implications for California and other grape growing regions of the world. Crop Protection 23: 691-699. 

51. Hoddle, M.S. 2004. Restoring balance: using exotic natural enemies to control invasive exotic species. Conservation Biology 18: 38-49. 

50. Hoddle, M.S. 2004. The strength of biological control in the battle against invasive pests: a reply. Conservation Biology 18: 61-64. 

49. Hoddle, M.S., Mound, L.A. and Nakahara, S. 2004.  Thysanoptera recorded from California, U.S.A.: a checklist.  Florida Entomologist 87 (3): 317-323

48. Hoddle, M.S., Oevering, P. Phillips, P.A., and Faber B.A. 2004. Evaluation of augmentative releases of Franklinothrips orizabensis for control ofScirtothrips perseae in California avocado orchards. Biological Control  30: 456-465.

47. Hoddle, M.S., and Robinson, L. 2004.  Evaluation of factors influencing augmentative releases of Chrysoperla carnea for control of Scirtothrips perseae in California avocado orchards.  Biological Control 31: 268-275

46. Irvin N.A., Hoddle, M.S., 2004. Oviposition preference of Homalodisca coagulata for two citrus limon cultivars and influence of host plant on parasitism by Gonatocerus ashmeadi and G. Triguttatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Florida Entomologist 87, 504-510.

45. Irvin, N., Hoddle, M.S., O’Brochta, D.A., Carey, B. and Atkinson, P.W. 2004.Assessing fitness costs for transgenic Aedes aegypti expressing the GFP marker and transposase genes. PNAS 101: 891-896.

44. Vickerman, D.B., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S. and Stouthamer R. 2004. Species identity of geographically distinct populations of the glassy-winged sharpshooter parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi: morphology, DNA sequences, and reproductive compatibility.  Biological Control 31: 338-345.

43. Hoddle, M. S.2003. The Effect of Prey Species and Environmental Complexity on the Functional Response of Franklinothrips orizabensis: a Test of the Fractal Foraging Model. Ecological Entomology 28: 309-318.

42. Hoddle, M.S. 2003. Predation Behaviors of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) Towards Scirtothrips perseae and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Biological Control 27: 323-328. 

41. Hoddle, M. S., K. M. Jetter, and J. G. Morse. 2003. The Economic Impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California Avocado Production. Crop Protection 22: 485-493. 

40. Hoddle, M.S., Mound, L.A. 2003. The genus Scirtothrips in Australia (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Zootaxa 268: 1-40. 

39. Hoddle, M. S., S. V. Triapitsyn, and D. J. W. Morgan. 2003. Distribution and Plant Association Records for Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist 86: 89-91. 

38. Triapitsyn, S. V., Morgan, D.J.W., Hoddle, M.S., Beresovkiy, V.V. 2003. Observations on the biology of Gonatocerus fasciatus Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) and Oncometopia orbona (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Clypeorrhyncha: Cicadellidae). Pan Pacific Entomologist 79: 62-63.

37. Hoddle, M. S. 2002. Developmental and Reproductive Biology of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): A New Avocado Pest in California. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 279-285. 

36. Hoddle, M. S. 2002. Oviposition Preference of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Southern California Avocado Orchards. Pan Pacific Entomologist 78: 177-183. 

35. Hoddle, M. S., J. G. Morse, P. A. Phillips, B. A. Faber, and K. M. Jetter. 2002.Avocado Thrips: A New Challenge for Growers. California Agriculture 56: 103-107. 

34. Hoddle, M. S., L. Robinson, and D. Morgan.  2002. Attraction of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aeolothripidae) to Colored Sticky Cards in a California Avocado Orchard.  Crop Protection. 21: 383-388.

33. Hoddle, M. S., S. Nakahara, and P. A. Phillips. 2002. Foreign Exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Associated Natural Enemies on Avocado (Persea americana Miller.). Biological Control 24: 251-265. 

32. Takano-Lee, M. and M. S. Hoddle. 2002. Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Population Response to Cultural Control Attempts in an Avocado Orchard. Florida Entomologist 85: 216-226.

31. Takano-Lee, M. and M. S. Hoddle, 2002. Predatory Behaviors of Neoseiulus californicus and Galendromus helveolus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) AttackingOligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 26: 13-26.

30. Triapitsyn, S. V., M. S. Hoddle, and D. J. W. Morgan. 2002. A New Distribution and Host Record for Gonatocerus triguttatus in Florida, with Notes on Acmopolynema sema (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Florida Entomologist 85: 654-655. 

29. Hoddle, M. S., J. Jones, K. Oishi, D. Morgan, and L. Robinson. 2001.  Evaluation of Diets for the Development and Reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research  91: 273-280. 

28. Hoddle, M.S., K. Oishi, and D. Morgan. 2001. Pupation Biology of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) and Harvesting and Shipping of this Predator. Florida Entomologist 84: 272-281. 

27. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, S. M. Lyon, and J. P. Sanderson. 2001.Compatibility of Insect Growth Regulators with Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for Whitefly (Homoptera; Aleyrodidae) Control on Poinsettias: I. Laboratory Assays. Biological Control 20: 122-131. 

26. Joyce, A. L., M. S. Hoddle, T. S. Bellows, and D. Gonzalez.  2001.  Oviposition Behavior of Coccidoxenoides peregrinus, A Parasitoid of Planococcus ficus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 98 : 49-57.

25. Takano-Lee, M. and M. S. Hoddle. 2001. Biological Control of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Avocado: IV. Evaluating the Efficacy of a Modified Mistblower to Mechanically Dispense Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology 27: 157-169.

24. Van Driesche, R. G., M. S. Hoddle, S. M. Lyon, and J. P. Sanderson. 2001.Compatibility of Insect Growth Regulators with Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for Whitefly (Homoptera; Aleyrodidae) Control on Poinsettias: II. Trials in Commercial Poinsettia Crops. Biological Control 20: 132-146. 

23. Van Driesche, R. G., M. S. Hoddle, S. Roy, S. Lyon, and J. P. Sanderson. 2001.Effect of Parasitoid Release Pattern on Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Control in Commercial Poinsettia. Florida Entomologist 84: 63-69.

22. Hoddle, M. S., L. Robinson, K. Drescher, and J. Jones. 2000. Developmental and Reproductive Biology of a Predatory Franklinothrips n. sp. (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae). Biological Control 18: 27-38. 

21. Hoddle, M. S., L. Robinson, and J. Virzi. 2000. Biological Control of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Avocado: III. Evaluating the Efficacy of Varying Release Rates and Release Frequency of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology 26: 203-214. 

20. Kerguelen, V. and M. S. Hoddle. 2000. Comparison of the Susceptibility of Several Cultivars of Avocado to the Persea Mite, Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Scientia Horticulturae 84: 101-114. 

19. Hoddle, M. S., O. Aponte, V. Kerguelen, and J. Heraty. 1999. Biological Control of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Avocado: I. Evaluating Release Timings, Recovery, and Efficacy of Six Commercially Available Phytoseiids. International Journal of Acarology 25: 211-219. 

18. Hoddle, M. S., J. P. Sanderson, and R. G. Van Driesche. 1999. Biological Control of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia with Inundative Releases of Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Does Varying the Weekly Release Rate Affect Control? Bulletin of Entomological Research 89: 41-51. 

17. Hoddle, M. S. and R. G. Van Driesche. 1999. Evaluation of Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa Beltsville Strain in Commercial Greenhouses for Biological Control of Bemisia argentifolii on Colored Poinsettia Plants. Florida Entomologist 82: 556-569.  

16. Kerguelen, V. and M. S. Hoddle. 1999. Biological Control of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Avocado: II. Evaluating the Efficacy of Galendromus helveolus and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology 25: 221-229.

15. Kerguelen, V. and M. S. Hoddle. 1999. Measuring Mite Feeding Damage on Avocado with Automated Image Analysis Software. Florida Entomologist. 82:  119-122.

14. Van Driesche, R. G., S. M. Lyon, M. S. Hoddle, S. Roy, and J. P. Sanderson. 1999. Assessment of Cost and Performance of Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Control in Commercial Poinsettia Crops. Florida Entomologist 82: 570-594. 

13. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, J. S. Elkinton, and J. P. Sanderson. 1998. Discovery and Utilization of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Patches by Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa (Beltsville strain) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Greenhouses. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 87: 15-28. 

12. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, and J. P. Sanderson. 1998.  Biological Control of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia with Inundative Releases of Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Do Release Rates Affect Parasitism? Bulletin of Entomological Research 88: 47-58. 

11. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, and J. P. Sanderson. 1998. Biology and Use of the Whitefly Parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Annual Review of  Entomology 43: 645-69. 

10. Hoddle, M. S.and R. G. Van Driesche. 1997. Evaluation of Inundative Releases of Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa Beltsville Strain in Commercial Greenhouses for Control of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia  Stock Plants. Journal of Economic Entomology 92: 811-824.

9. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, and J. P. Sanderson.  1997.  Biological Control of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia with Inundative Releases of Encarsia formosa "Beltsville Strain" (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Can Parasitoid Reproduction Augment Inundative Releases? Journal of Economic Entomology 90: 910-924. 

8. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, and J. P. Sanderson.  1997.  Biological Control of  Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia with Inundative Releases of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Are Higher Release Rates Necessarily Better? Biological Control 10: 166-179. 

7. Van Driesche, R.G. and M.S. Hoddle.  1997.  Should Arthropod Parasitoids and Predators Be Subject to Host Range Testing When Used as Biological Control Agents? Agriculture and Human Values 14: 211-226. 

6. Hoddle, M. S.and R. G. Van Driesche.  1996.  Evaluation of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to Control Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima): A Lifetable Analysis. Florida Entomologist. 79: 1-12. 

5. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, and J. P. Sanderson. 1996. Greenhouse Trials of Eretmocerus californicus Howard (Hymenoptera:  Aphelinidae) for Control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia in Northeastern U.S.A.  IOBC Bulletin Vol. 19 (1) 79: 55-58. 

4. Hoddle, M. S., R. G. Van Driesche, J. P. Sanderson, and M. Rose. 1996.  A Photographic Technique for Constructing Lifetables for Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia. Florida Entomologist 79: 464-468. 

3. Hoddle, M. S.1991. The Determination of the Number of Larval Instars ofApion ulicis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Apionidae). New Zealand Natural Sciences.  18: 59-62. 

2. Hoddle, M. S. 1991. Gorse Pod Susceptibility and Oviposition Preference to the Gorse Seed Weevil, Apion ulicis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Apionidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 31-35. 

1. Hoddle, M. S.  1991.  Lifetable Construction for the Gorse Seed Weevil, Apion ulicis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Apionidae) Before Gorse Pod Dehiscence, and Life History Strategies of the Weevil. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 399-404. 

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