University of California, Riverside

Applied Biological Control Research

Christina Hoddle

Christina HoddleChristina Hoddle
Assistant Specialist
Phone: (951) 827-4360
Fax: (951) 827-3086

Christina has collaborated with the Hoddle laboratory since 2004. Christina has dedicated her research efforts towards biological control and invasive species with an emphasis on crop pests. She has been involved in a variety of international projects sponsored by various granting agencies, private institutions, and commodity boards. An example of these finished and on-going projects include: hunting for bean thrips in Australia (Funded: Citrus Research Board-CRB), identification and production of pheromone for avocado seed moth (Stenoma catenifer) in Guatemala and Peru (Funded: CA Avocado Commission), searching for Asian citrus psyllid parasitoids in Pakistan (Funded: CDFA/CRB), monitoring Rodolia cardinalis populations on the Galapagos Islands and assessing the impact of this biocontrol agent on the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi (Funded: Various Donors), red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and R. vulneratus) flight activity in Saudi Arabia (Funded: King Faisal University) and genetic analyses throughout southeast Asia (Funded: CDFA).

From December 2011 through April 2013, Christina was in charge of releasing and monitoring Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a biological control agent of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in urban areas of Southern California. This project has proven to be extremely successful, and parasites have been detected 5-7 miles beyond their release points. CDFA and the Citrus Research Board have subsequently taken over the mass production and releases of this parasitoid. Since then, Christina has focused her efforts on a second parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).This solitary endoparasitoid prefers to attack 2nd-3rd instars of ACP, whereas Tamarixia radiata prefers the 4th-5th instars. The goal is to utilize both parasitoids as a control strategy to create a complementary effect where they attack nearly all of the nymphal stages of ACP. Christina is currently in charge of rearing Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis and as ofDecember 2014 started the release and monitoring program in urban areas of Southern California.


  • M.S. Entomology (2004), University of California Riverside, CA
  • B.S. Environmental Biology (2000), California State University Northridge, CA


22. Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S. 2014. Phenology of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Associated Parasitoids on Two Species of Citrus, Kinnow Mandarin andSweet Orange, in Punjab Pakistan. Environmental Entomology. p.12. 

21. Vetter, R.S., Khan, S.Z., Arif, M.J., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Spiders (Araneae) surveyed from unsprayed citrus orchards in Faisalabad, Pakistan and their potential as biological control agents of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Pakistan Entomologist. Vol. 35: p.61-69. 

20. Tena, A., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemitperan interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Vol. 103: p.714-723. 

19. Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Stouthamer, R. 2013. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both. PLoS One. Vol. 8(10) e78739: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078379 15p. 

18. Hoddle, M.S., Ramirez, C.C., Hoddle, C.D., Loayza, J., Lincango, M.P., van Driesche, R., Causton, C. 2013. Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Biological Control. 67 p.262-274. 

17. Hoddle, M.S., Al-Abbad, A.H., El-Shafie, H.F., Faleiro, J.R., Sallam, A.A., Hoddle, C.D. 2013. Assessing the impact of areawide pheromone trapping, pesticide applications and eradication of infested date palms for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in Al Ghowaybah, Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection. 53 p.152-160. 

16. Hoddle, C.D., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S.V. 2013. Marietta leopardina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Aprostocetus (Aprostocetus) sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are obligate hyperparasitoids of Tamarixia radiata (Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.643-646. 

15. Triapitsyn, S.V., Hoddle, C.D., Hayat, M., Hoddle, M.S. 2013. Taxonomic notes on Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its host associations in Pakistan. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 96: p.212-218. 

14. Calderon Alverez, C., Causton, C., Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., van Driesche, R., Stanek III, E.J. 2012. Monitoring the effects of Rodolia cardinalis on Icerya purchasi populations on the Galapagos Islands. BioControl. Vol. 57: p.167-179. 

13. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. 2012. Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Associated Parasitoids Infesting Avocados in Perú. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 105: 2 p.402-409. 

12. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. 2011. Evaluation of three trapping strategies for Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in the Philippines. Pakistan Entomologist. Vol. 33: 2 p.77-80. 

11. Hoddle, M.S., Millar, J.G., Hoddle, C.D., Zou, Y., McElfresh, S.S., Lesch, J.S. 2011. Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Vol. 101: p.145-152. 

10. O'Brochta, D.A., Stosic, C.D., Pilitt, K., Subramanian, R.A., Hice, R.A., Atkinson, P.W. 2009. Transpositionally active episomal hAT elements. BMC Molecular Biology. Vol. 10: 108 p.15

9. Hoddle, M.S., Mottern, J.L., Hoddle, C.D. 2009. Observations on Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infesting Hass Avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 92: 4 p.673-674. 

8. Hoddle, M.S., Millar, J.G., Hoddle, C.D., Zou, Y., McElfresh, S.S. 2009. Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Environmental Entomology. Vol. 102: p.1460-1467. 

7. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. 2008. Aspects of the field ecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) infesting Hass avocados in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 91: p.693-694. 

6. Millar, J.G., Hoddle, M.S., McElfresh, S.S., Zou, Y., Hoddle, C.D. 2008. (9Z)-9,13-Tetradecadien-11-ynal,the sex pheromone of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer. . Tetrahedron Letters. Vol. 49: p.4820-4823. 

5. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D., Mound, L.A. 2008. Inventory of Thysanoptera collected from French Polynesia. Pacific Science. Vol. 62: p. 509-515. 

4. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. 2008. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala. Journal of Economic Entomology. p.1310-1316. 101p. 

3. Hoddle, M.S., Hoddle, C.D. 2008. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala. . Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 101: 3 p.692-698

2. Hoddle, M.S., Stosic, C.D., Mound, L.A. 2006. Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia. . Australian Journal of Entomology. Vol. 45: p.122-129. 

1. Holtzman, D.A., Stosic, C.D., Wyatt, J. 2002. Field use of a local anesthetic, Lidocaine Hydrochloride, for radio-transmitter implantation in Boa constrictor imperator. Herpetological Review. Vol. 33: p.189-192. 

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