University of California, Riverside

Applied Biological Control Research



Asian Citrus Psyllid


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Diaphorina citri

Tamarixia radiata

Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis

MORPHOLOGY

 

ACP Adults

 

 

Tamarixia radiata

 


Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis

 

 

Adults

~ 3-4 mm long; brown head, body and legs; gray antennae with black tip; gray/brown, blue/green, or orange/ yellow abdomen (morphotypes); mottled wings

~ 1 mm long; black head with large red eyes; black body; gaster pale underside; white/yellow legs; transparent yellow-veined wings

~ 1-1.5 mm; black head, body and gaster; yellow legs; transparent yellow-veined wings

 

 

 

 

Sexual dimorphism

Not easily discerned. Males and females are separated by the morphology of the posterior part of the abdomen

 

Evident:males are darker in color with long hairy 9-segmented antennae; females are lighter in color with 8-segmented antennae

Male Tamarixia Female Tamarixia

 

Evident:males are entirely black in color and have long hairy antennae; females large yellow abdomen and clubbed antennae

DA Male DA Male

 

Immatures

Visible: orange-brown; 0.25-1.7 mm long; non-functional wingpads present in late stage instars

Visible: attached to the ventral side of host nymph; translucent; ~ 0.5-0.8 mm long

Not visible: develops inside the host; translucent; 400-1200 µm long

Eggs

orange; 0.3 mm long; elongated on stalks, with tapered tip

ivory, translucent; kidney shaped

transparent; ovoid; 130 µm long

DEVELOPMENT*

 

 

 

Optimal temperature range

24-28oC (75-82oF)

25oC (77oF)

25oC (77oF)

Development time (mean)

11-15 days at 24oC (75oF)

11-12 days at 25oC (77oF)

16-18 days 25oC (77oF)

Female longevity (mean)

31-32 days at 24oC (75oF)

22.5 days at 25oC (77oF), on honey diet

27.5 days at 25oC (77oF); on honey diet

Male longevity (mean)

21-25 days at 24oC (75oF)

 

 

Larval development

5 nymphal instars

4 larval instars, prepupal, and pupal stages

4 larval instars, prepupal, and pupal stages

PARASITISM

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type & Specificity

ACP nymphs are hosts for Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis

Ectoparasitoid: egg laid near a mid or hind coxa of a fourth or fifth instar host nymph; species-specific

hgf Parasitized ACP nymph mummies

 

Endoparasitoid: egg laid inside the thorax or abdomen of the host nymph; species-specific

Endoparasitoid: egg laid inside the thorax or abdomen of the host nymph; species-specific dead hosts become darker in color

ACP instars attacked

4th - 5th

2nd - 4th

 

 

 

Mummy formation

Parasitized ACP nymphs appear mummified in the fourth larval instar of parasitoid; dead hosts become darker in color; host mummy anchored to the plant surface with silken spindles, dark meconium (i.e., a fecal pellet expelled by the pupa) apparent in the posterior

Parasitized ACP nymphs appear mummified in the fourth larval instar of parasitoid; dead hosts become darker in color; wasp larvae exude sticky anal secretions to firmly secure the dead host to the leaf surface

Emergence hole location

Anterior end of the ACP nymph in the thoracic region

Posterior end of the ACP nymph, in the abdomen

Maximum host mortality from one female (host feeding & parasitism combined)

500

280

Hyperparasitism

Rare/not recorded in California and native range

Rare/not recorded in California. Common in native range

Superparasitism

Not recorded

Recorded

 

*Development, longevity, and fecundity vary significantly depending upon temperature, relative humidity, diet, host and conspecific density

The data used to compile this table summary were taken from: McFarlan & Hoy 2001; Halbert & Manjunath 2004; Rohrig et al. 2011; Hall et al. 2013; Grafton-Cardwell et al. 2013; Chen & Stansly 2014; Vankosky and Hoddle 2016

(Photos: Mike Lewis, Center of Invasive Species Research, UC Riverside).

 

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